Apple Firmness Testing by Magness-Taylor Penetration Method
Objective texture testing of fruit is especially helpful when trying to determine the ripeness or freshness. Information like this makes it simpler for growers to decide the correct moment to harvest in order to present the consumer with the most desirable product.
Then each sample was placed on the lower fulcrums of the fixture. The upper Magness-Taylor fixture moved and the system measured the force that was needed to break each sample - the firmness equating to freshness.
Salami Firmness Testing by Cylinder Probe Penetration Method
Firmness of products can be measured in a number of different ways. For this test, a 25.4mm cylinder was used to measure the inner meat of a ground salami product.
Individual samples were cut from whole salami using a template. Each piece was approximately 1 inch in height when placed on the texture analyzer. The perspex cylinder fixture then moved down and penetrated into the product a set distance.
Dough Firmness Testing by Cylinder Probe Penetration Method
This test was designed the measure the difference in firmness of two different bread dough samples. First the products were allowed to equilibrate under refrigeration to approximately 40°F.
For each test replication, the probe moved down until it came into contact with the bread dough. It then went an additional 5mm into the product. Upon completion, the TL Pro software calculated the maximum force incurred (firmness).
French Bread Staleness Testing by Cylinder Probe Penetration Method
Freshness and staleness are primary indicators of the quality of most bread products - the desirable texture being softness equating to freshness. French bread is often firmer and said to be somewhat stale, which is the target texture for this particular product.
Pastry Dough Hardness by Cylinder Probe Compression Method
Many products require only a simple penetration test to measure differences in texture. For pastry dough, a small amount of each variant was prepared for testing.
Each test replication involved the probe moving a set distance into the sample and then measuring the resistance force as the representation of product hardness. This result was then compared to the product that was said to have the ideal texture and consistency.