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Breadcrumb Texture Profile Analysis

Specification

Sliced bread on a texture analyzer stand

A Texture profile analysis (TPA) compression method was used to measure the texture of commercial sliced bread over a three day period to quantify product staling.

A reproducible method was required for the practical assessment of breadcrumb texture as an indicator of product staleness. The method had to take into account a number of variables:

• formulation and composition
• environmental exposure and packaging
• location of the test site on the sample
• manufacturing process
• sample geometry

 

Method

breadcrumb texture profile analysis results table

The method used is based on a study at Campden and Chorleywood Food Association in 2002, investigating the standardisation of instrumental texture measurements in baked goods. The parameters of cohesiveness, hardness and springiness are used as reproducible predictors of breadcrumb texture.

Reproducibility was improved through critical selection of samples. Slices were critically selected to eliminate differentiation representative of differences in dough pieces and only slices located next to each other were used.

A second study was carried out 3 days later to represent the effect of staling within the sample. The first three slices were discarded to remove crust variation. Two samples were taken at a time.

Results

Texture Profile Analysis combines several attributes of a product, resulting in a wider overall evaluation of its texture (see glossary). Of those elements, three are particularly useful here:

  • Cohesiveness - TPA when effectively applied can provide a reproducible measure of breadcrumb texture.
  • Springiness - Instrumental analysis can be used in the optimisation of formulation, packaging and shelf-life.
  • Hardness - Breadcrumb measurements can be used as a predictor of process behaviour, e.g., firmer textures may improve handling during slicing or automated sandwich manufacture.

 

Significance

Breadcrumb texture is a soft moist solid foam. When tested to small deformations (particularly when fresh), it exhibits extremely elastic characteristics. As it stales it exhibits a more viscous behaviour. The key parameters of cohesiveness and springiness reflect the development of internal bonding within the sample. Hardness is directly related to how hard or soft a sample feels. As the bread becomes staler it increases in hardness, reflecting a decrease in moisture content and an increase in bond strength within the rigid foam. The parameter of cohesiveness is more complex sensorially - it is correlated negatively to the rate of breakdown in the mouth and ease of separation in the hand. As bread becomes stale, moisture is lost and the bread is easier to separate in the hand and faster to breakdown in the mouth. The parameter of springiness decreases as shelf-life increases (staling progresses), due to an increase in the viscous element as the product ages.

Trusted by customers across the world

My first contact with FTC was through buying texture analyzer equipment as my area of interest is Rheology. We faced a problem operating the appliance. The company tried hard to help us through the internet, but the University thought it was better to send me to the company branch located in England. I received a highly advanced training course for 10 days free of charge. They provided me with programs that operate the equipment along with the information needed.

It was a great effort and outstanding support. I would like to thank Shirl Lakeway and FTC for providing me with this opportunity and for his continuous help. Finally, I encourage researchers who are interested in the physical properties of foods and dairy to choose FTC as it is a respectable and dependable company and offers the best deals concerning prices and training with different languages, such as Arabic for the Middle East.

Professor Hoda El-Zeini, Dairy Science and Agriculture University - Cairo, Egypt
Professor
https://cu.edu.eg

I am impressed by the great attitude you have toward your customers.

With all the responsibilities you have, but in less than an hour you reply to our one year’s worth of questions, as if you are dedicated to provide support to our company only.

 

 

Ahmed N. Alajaji, Aljazirah Dates and Food, Saudi Arabia
http://www.aljazirahdates.com.sa

I have been working with FTC for the past 3 years, we bought in that lapse of time 2 texture analyzers with different probes fixtures for all kind of applications at our Monterrey Plant. We have always been able to count on the technical support of FTC who kindly answers our requests in a prompt manner and with the best disposition.

As we continue developing our process to achieve better results at our company, we will for sure rely on FTC for technical support and equipment upgrades that will deliver us the best possible results.

Claudia Rojas, Hershey Monterrey Plant - Mexico
Asst. Staff Scientist
https://www.hersheys.com