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Marshmallow Softness


MarshmellowsOur client produces a marshmallow product, for which the texture (firmness) is a key factor. Their testing method had been a simple sensory method of squeezing the product in the hand, but this did not provide objective data that could be fed back into the manufacturing process.

We provided test data on some samples to demonstrate how mechanized texture analysis could give instant acceptance testing and feedback into the ongoing manufacturing process for real-time adjustment.

The customer was also interested in seeing how a thermal process affected the final texture. Because of this it was necessary to test a control sample against a heated sample to show the difference that heating causes.



marshmellowThe demonstration testing was done using Food Technology Corporation’s (FTC) TMS-Pro Texture Analyzer, fitted with a 500 N intelligent loadcell and a 75 mm compression platen.
Two sample groups of marshmallows were used: three controls (un-reheated) and three that had been reheated for 10 second in a microwave oven to a temperature of 100°F and tested while hot.

For each sample, the test program moved the compression platen down until it touched the surface of the marshmallow.

It then compressed the sample at a speed of 250 mm/min to a distance of 15 mm before returning the platen to its starting position at the same speed. The FTC TL-Pro software automatically calculated the peak force applied, or “firmness.” Additionally, the work done (energy spent, or area under the curve) was calculated as another measure of differences in the texture of the various samples.


The graphical representation from TL-Pro, of the test results for the six samples, is shown here (force applied, against cumulative displacement).



Marshmellow - case study graph



The two sample groups are clearly distinguishable and each group is fairly consistent. The upper set of traces is the control product and the lower set is the heated product. This significant separation in the two sample sets is an ideal outcome when measuring a textural difference caused by a variable. The slightly greater inconsistency in heated samples may be due to variation in the cooling rate during testing.

The same results with additional calculations are shown here.

Marshmallow case study graph

Average = arithmetic mean
SD = standard deviation
CV = coefficient of variation: (SD/Mean) x 100



Based on the data gathered, it can be seen that this is a valid methodology for testing the product. It is also clear from the results that the heating process has a significant effect on the final texture. It took three to four times the energy to compress the control samples as the heated samples.

Being able to accurately measure, and therefore control, even minor difference in the final texture of the product is very important to the producer. By correlating the mechanical testing with the customary manual sensory data, an objective target range for a desirable product texture can be established. This range can be entered into the texture analyzer to provide immediate and accurate PASS/FAIL readings, allowing timely adjustments to be made in the process and formula.

Trusted by customers across the world

My first contact with FTC was through buying texture analyzer equipment as my area of interest is Rheology. We faced a problem operating the appliance. The company tried hard to help us through the internet, but the University thought it was better to send me to the company branch located in England. I received a highly advanced training course for 10 days free of charge. They provided me with programs that operate the equipment along with the information needed.

It was a great effort and outstanding support. I would like to thank Shirl Lakeway and FTC for providing me with this opportunity and for his continuous help. Finally, I encourage researchers who are interested in the physical properties of foods and dairy to choose FTC as it is a respectable and dependable company and offers the best deals concerning prices and training with different languages, such as Arabic for the Middle East.

Professor Hoda El-Zeini, Dairy Science and Agriculture University - Cairo, Egypt

Nestle purchased a texture system from Food Technology Corporation in 2006. Since then I have recommended the texture system to several vendors in North and Central America. Staff at FTC was able to develop a simple training manual and procedure for the texture system allowing easy training in short period of time.

From purchasing of equipment through to installation and start-up, the level of personal care and service was remarkable. Shirl Lakeway and his staff at Food Technology Corporation are patient and understanding, and are always at our disposal for any assistance. Since we bought the equipment we have had no problems and feel very secure knowing that we can count on FTC for their support and service.

Dr Mawele Shamaila, Nestle - USA

I have been working with FTC for the past 3 years, we bought in that lapse of time 2 texture analyzers with different probes fixtures for all kind of applications at our Monterrey Plant. We have always been able to count on the technical support of FTC who kindly answers our requests in a prompt manner and with the best disposition.

As we continue developing our process to achieve better results at our company, we will for sure rely on FTC for technical support and equipment upgrades that will deliver us the best possible results.

Claudia Rojas, Hershey Monterrey Plant - Mexico
Asst. Staff Scientist